Parallel sessions 1
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Wednesday 11 Sep 2019
Conference symposium 1 - Career Guidance policies in CEE
Career Guidance in the context of the Czech educational policy
Silvie PýchováPlenary room
This paper is prepared as an input to the doctoral research with the aims to examine public policy actors´perceptions of career guidance in education in the Czech Republic and to contribute to the understanding and development of the policies in this field. This paper is only one part of this research and its aim is to make a secondary analysis of data which are available from the participative process Delphi running in the frame of the preparation of Strategy of Educational Policy 2030 in the Czech Republic. The goal of the collection of these data in 2019 was to discover what the involved stakeholders consider to be priorities in education in the Czech Republic until 2030. In the context of this process, I made a secondary analysis of data provided from almost hundred Czech stakeholders. I looked at these data from the perspective of career guidance and I was interested if development of career guidance is mentioned (in any form) among the problems in education identified by these stakeholders in our country. Results of this analysis show that carer guidance is not considered a priority in education by Czech stakeholders. This analysis will serve as a complementary input to my phenomenografic research using individual interviews with various actors of public policy in the Czech Republic that I plan to organize within my dissertation. This should help to create a more detailed description and understanding of the perception of career guidance in the Czech Republic.
Career Guidance policies and practice in central European countries – A workshop to discuss actual states and further developments
Peter Weber & Rebeca Garcia-MuriasPlenary room
Fifteen years after the OECD report on Career Guidance (2004) (CG) systems and ten years after the ELGPN publication on Career Guidance Policies in Europe (2009) this workshop will invite practitioners and experts from central European countries (particularly Poland, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia) to review the actual state of CG policy and practice and the needs for further developments in these countries.
The workshop assumes that CG has reflected the changes in our societies and labour markets. Whether we focus on high or low qualified people and their particular chances and problems in the world of work, CG practice and CG policies in our countries have reacted to these challenges and developed further.
The workshops will put the central questions from the conference on the table and invite practitioners and experts to contribute with their reflections about the actual state and developmental needs in their countries:
• To what extent does CG and career development affect individual’s position on the labour market and the mobility of individuals in their working life?
• Does CG and career development help to prevent social marginalization and exclusion? Did the role of the career guidance and career development change in recent years?
• Is there a change in the roles and objectives/conceptualizations of career guidance in the countries?
• What is the role of teachers, career guidance practitioners, and career guidance education in preparing young generation for 4.0 labour market?
• How are CG practitioners prepared in the light of actual challenges and the new roles of CG in the different systems?
• What policy framework needs to exist for effective career guidance and career development?
• Is CG (still) seen as a marginalized policy area or is there a change in the relevance?
The moderator of the workshop will invite representatives of the Central Europen Countries to prepare themselves to reflect on the questions of the conference and contribute to the discussion in the workshop. The workshop will make use of a dynamic methodology to bring participants into discussion and to involve the people in active networking activities. The workshop might be an opener for further exchange between the involved countries for further discussions.
Non-changing nature of work values in Hungary and implications for the practice of career guidance and counselling
Tibor Bors Borbély-PeczePlenary room
This abstract was prepared for the IAEVG 2019 Conference in Bratislava “Career Guidance for Inclusive Society” as a modified and shortened version of an already published article in Hungarian . The original aim of the article was to argue the changing nature of career development vs. the still standing traditional-survival values in Hungary and the also changing – and more polarized – nature of paid work where entry jobs lost its nature of serving as springboard for a better career (Standing, 2011, Piketty, 2014, Bell-Benes, 2012). This global tendency was cross-analysed with the very different regional values based on data of the World Values Survey (WVS), where Hungary and Central-Eastern-Europe after 40 years of Communism (1947-1990) and 30 years of transformation (1990-2019) period still stands as a traditional-survival values region (WVS, wave 6, Inglehart, – Welzel, 2015).
This fact has strong implications for careering and the daily routine of career counselling and guidance in Hungary and in the region. The use of the individual work value inventory in practice need to be connected with counsellors’ knowledge and understanding about the values and trust in the society as such. It requires a cross-disciplinary training of the counsellors where sociology is equally present during the training and CPD. In practice the adaptation of any counsellors’ tool, techniques in the local context would require a detailed analysis of the “social contract” (Rousseau) in place as we can see from the Hungarian case this adaptation step is partly missing or for example the adopted counsellors’ tools such as Super WVI haven’t been adjusted since the 1980’s. The acquisition of such tools in the daily practice of the professionals may have negative consequences on the ethical practice as well as negative effects on the clients’ careers.
Oral session 1.1 - Innovative approaches
Clearing the FOG – Studying personal participation in solution-focused counselling
Kirsi Raetsaari & Suorsa TeemuB1.06 Kysuce
Based on the idea of the subject-scientific research on subject's personal conduct of everyday life we describe a subject-scientifically informed way of conducting solution-focused counselling conversation. We take a practical look at counselling conversations by utilizing a methodological concept of ‘fabric of grounds’ (FOG) as counsellor’s tool. The experiences are gained in conducting research interviews by the means of solution-focused counselling and analysing the data by the FOG method. We present a case example of these research interviews illustrating how the conversations were designed and analysed. We suggest, that it is possible to construct three different FOGs in counselling conversation: a 'problem FOG', an 'alternative FOG', and a 'process FOG' between the first two. The results show, that in addition to helping students to outline alternative solutions to their problems in counselling conversation, with FOGs, we can create knowledge (1) about different ways of students' participating in the (past, present and possible) scenes of their everyday living, and (2) about the conditions experienced by them in the context of counselling at the school. Therefore, with the knowledge gained in everyday work, the counsellor is able to continuously develop the counselling practices and conditions. In addition, we suggest, that the FOG also works as a tool for the students offering them a way to consider and create solutions in future problematic situations.
Exploring the efficacy of a Hope-Based Future Orientation Intervention within a Sustainable Livelihood Framework
Gloria MarsayB1.06 Kysuce
Unemployment in South Africa is presently at an all-time high. The gap between rich and poor continues to widen. Without sufficient perceived options for establishing a meaningful work life, many South Africans are left with a sense of hopelessness and helplessness. Clearly, it is necessary to find ways of instilling and restoring hope and empowering people with skills to earn a sustainable livelihood.
The unique foundation of the approach discussed in this paper, intertwines the theory of hope with a future orientation programme to assist young people make the transition from education into the world of work within a sustainable livelihood framework.
The paper begins by examining the role of language in making meaning of work-related constructs, followed by a brief discussion of selected dominant theories used as foundation to the approach. The structure of the blended approach is described. The efficacy of this way of working was tested in three different studies in the South African context. The studies used specific qualitative research designs. The effectiveness of the Hope Based Future Orientated Approach can be considered for the following reasons: It develops fundamental hope and enables preferred future orientated decisions as an essential part of the process; It is multi-faceted (internal and external factors); It is strengths based; It is flexible enough to address the diversity of individual and context; It is a relatively cost and time effective. The results obtained in these pilot studies indicate that this approach is worthy of consideration as a more ethical approach to counselling in the South African context.
Open space in counselling and guidance
Maria Peltola & Jussi SilvonenB1.06 Kysuce
The process of counselling has been described in counselling theories in various ways, as interaction, as dialogue between counsellor and counselee, as narrative construction, just to name few of them. Counselling as helping process is, however, complex in many ways. That complexity of agency and control is described in Immanuel Kant’s pedagogical paradox. In this presentation, we will look at how interaction in counselling creates developmental spaces where this paradox is solved. The zone of proximal development contains the idea, that in interaction other one, adult or counsellor, makes it possible to the other to reach the potential level in his development. But it does not indicate, how this transition actually occurs in practice. We argue that the concept of open space makes it possible to take a closer look at developmental processes in counselling. This requires an analysis of how developmental open space is created and constructed in interaction. In our presentation we will demonstrate how the concept of open space can be used in the analysis of student’s life at university level.
Oral session 1.2 - Quality in career guidance
Certification development framework: assuring the quality of career practitioners
Jeroen BregmanB1.07 Liptov
There are numerous quality marks in the field of career guidance, both for individuals and for organisations. Often, those quality marks are quite difficult to compare, especially in their underlying rationales and considerations. On the other hand, it has proven to be rather difficult to develop coherent quality assurance systems that meet actual needs, since more often than not they are based on desired outcomes – ‘it must be ISO’ – instead of the underlying needs itself.
The presented certification framework, being developed by Noloc, the Dutch professional association for career guidance practitioners, as part of the EU co-funded QUAL-IM-G project, is based on three principles:
1. It is generic enough to deal with specific needs and circumstances of different target groups, sectors or countries;
2. It is specific enough to grasp the essentials involved in the development of a quality assurance framework specifically targeted on the certification of the profession of ‘career guidance practitioners’;
3. It focuses on actual needs instead of desired outcomes.
The framework itself is being built up by providing answers to the questions raised with respect to numerous elements – categorized in blocks and sub-blocks – that could be part of building a specific certification framework. Providing different answers, will lead to different outcomes and – therefore – different frameworks. This way of developing and implementing makes the framework both a highly flexible concept, as well as a concept that can be fully adapted to local, sectoral or national needs and circumstances.
In the workshop an overview of the main questions to be raised when developing a certification framework will be provided, using the structure of building blocks and sub-blocks. Of course, it is up to the certification framework development team to either skip questions or add additional questions, depending on their actual needs.
Enhancing the quality of career guidance in secondary school
Giulio IannisB1.07 Liptov
Career guidance at school is becoming crucial for preparing students to the complex and challengeable transition to a dynamic global labour market. The MYFUTURE project (Erasmus+) represents an international action research aimed at improving quality in career guidance at school. The international and local research teams have carried out focus groups and have led working groups in five countries to develop innovative models and tools (myfutureproject.eu/resources), starting from the shared framework of career management skills.
Among these tools (which included video tutorials, dynamic geo-mapping tools, career e-learning environments and e-portfolios), the Handbook, “Enhancing the quality of career guidance in secondary school” was created to support teachers and practitioners’ learning pathway. Thanks to the contribution of Professor Ronald Sultana, this tool presents a new quality framework for career guidance at school and the main steps to improve the quality standards in each school. The Handbook is organised to both enhance critical reflection and to provide resources to translate understanding into improved career education and guidance.
Part one carefully looks at what we mean by ‘quality’. ‘Quality’ is in fact a difficult and contested concept and the way we define it has profound implications for what we aim to achieve with students in schools. This part also describes how and when quality of career products and services in schools should be reviewed while guiding us through different models and options.
Part two describes six important features which are typically found in career guidance services in secondary schools. The proposal argues that quality of career guidance can be improved if the school pays attention to: the career learning programmes, the career information made available, the personalised support offered through career counselling, the provision of a well-organised and accessible career resource hub, the development of a partnership in career education and the formation of reflective practitioners.
The Gatsby benchmarks and its contribution to social mobility
Jill Hanson & Siobhan NearyB1.07 Liptov
Young people face a lengthening transition from education to the world of work. The average age that young people leave full-time education has been rising for over a century. Within the education system they are frequently asked to make multiple choices about subject, institution and qualifications that will exert a profound influence on their future lives. This is an issue for all young people, but it is particularly concerning because social capital (Bourdieu, 1986) is a significant influence on careers (e.g. Greenbank, 2009) and some young people can lack the social capital to develop an awareness of careers and labour markets, decision making around careers and progression routes through education and training to them. They can then be at risk of being outperformed by their more advantaged peers when building their careers. This paper discusses recent developments in policy and career strategy in England for young people and the extent to which career strategy is moving away from being a marginalised policy area. It examines a recent pilot which has operationalised elements of the new career strategy for young people and an evaluation of it which explores how career guidance, as an all-inclusive measure, is being used to impact positively on all learners (including those with disabilities or from disadvantaged backgrounds) attainment and destinations.
Oral session 1.3 - Career learning in elementary schools
A Pilot Study on the Newly Introduced Career Portfolio, "Career Passport" in Japanese Elementary Schools
Teruyuki FujitaB1.08 Orava
In March 2017, the Japanese National Ministry of Education declared its new policy to introduce 12-year consecutive career portfolio named "Career Passport" from Grade 1 in elementary schools. The portfolio is designed for ALL students in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools nationwide. The Ministry will mandate every school to introduce the "Career Passport" from April 2020.
It certainly is not difficult to find countries and regions in which many of the secondary school students use career portfolio that includes their academic records, vocational qualifications, career narratives, etc. However, in the global aspect, it typically is unique for elementary school students to start using career portfolio from Grade 1.
Obviously, the Ministry is not trying to persuade elementary school students to specify their career paths and encourage them to obtain certain vocational qualifications. Then, what are the purposes for the Ministry to introduce such career portfolio starting from Grade 1 in elementary schools? Do such endeavors bring forth preferable impacts to the career development of the students, especially those in elementary schools?
This study will illustrate the features of newly introduced career portfolio in pilot elementary schools, and their effects on the development of students' career development and on teachers' (i.e. in-school career guidance and counselling practitioners') understanding and recognitions of students' growth.
Among many positive effects on the career development of elementary school students, career portfolios significantly give opportunities to build clear self-recognition of the physical and cognitive growth; to increase self-esteem; and to enhance team-building skills, resilience, curiosity and other generic transferable career competencies.
Also, this study will analyze the model/sample sheets and the tips for teachers in the Teachers Manuals published by the Ministry of Education in March 2019, and identify the characteristics and its latent issues.
Career Programming in Elementary Settings: Facilitators and Barriers
Kimberly A. S. HowardB1.08 Orava
How do we ensure that quality developmentally-appropriate career programming is available to all of a nation’s youth? How do we convince school leaders that fostering positive career development in elementary school children is an important goal? How do we assist schools and school counselors in developing and implementing quality career programming for K-6 students? This project is identifying best practices in elementary school career development programming, so as to inform state and school district policy and ensure that all youth receive a quality career development foundation to support their later college and career readiness. To this end, this project is examining the current state of elementary school career development programming in six northeastern U.S. states, identifying the 1) beliefs and attitudes about providing career development programming in elementary schools, 2) the pre-service preparation and in-service professional development, 3) the career development foundations and resources, and 4) the school counselor-specific factors and the context-specific conditions that are associated with the provision of quality career development programming to elementary school-aged students. Further it will identify the typical content of elementary school career development activities, the typical processes through which elementary school career content is delivered, and the strategies used by elementary school counselors to ensure that all students have access to and benefit from career development programming.
Career-related learning in primary schools: poverty and privilege
Elnaz Kashefpakdel & Deirdre HughesB1.08 Orava
Whilst there is a plethora of research into post-primary schooling, early childhood career-related learning (CRL) is relatively under-researched. To address this gap, we postulate that at the heart of innovative career development is the need to present robust evidence that explains why and how CRL in primary schools is a vital component in a child’s career development journey. This workshop provides a brief synthesis of CRL theory, research and practice applied in selected OECD countries between 2014 – present. We present evidence-based case studies to highlight the role of CRL in primary schools
Globally, there is a growing need to address gender, ethnicity and social class stereotypes (inter alia: Archer, 2014; Crause et al, 2017; Kashefpakdel et al, 2019). In the UK, Spain, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, Nigeria and further afield a new wave of CRL initiatives are aimed at encouraging schools, employers and careers advisers to strengthen career dialogue within and outside of the classroom. Internationally, interest is strong too in national administrations and transnational bodies committed to raising aspirations from an early age and addressing inequality and gender stereotyping. Interest in part stems from finding cost-effective solutions to skills mismatch, addressing skills gaps and drop out rates in schooling.
We will draw upon selected findings from an international literature review and highlight some strategic key challenges and opportunities that exist. We then describe types of CRL and why this is important in primary schools. This is followed by a brief overview of the desired outcomes from CRL and contrasting case studies from primary school practice. We briefly discuss a theory of change (ToC) model designed to guide teachers’ continuous professional development in CRL.
We conclude by offering suggestions for further research highlighting the contributions that future work in this domain could make.
Oral session 1.4 - Career and gender
Transforming students’ stereotypical representations of professions: the role of a group career counseling program
Patricia Dionne & Eddy Supeno & Amélie Simard & Sylvain BourdonB1.09 Turiec
Gender inequalities persist on the labour market in Canada, particularly with respect to wages and working conditions. In the field of educational and vocational guidance, several emancipatory schemes, based on the social norm of equality, are aimed at countering these inequalities starting from youths’ initial training. Nevertheless, few young women and men are actually moving into non-traditional sectors, and for some, stereotypical gender-related representations of professions seem to limit their professional opportunities or career choices, and can create inequalities of access to certain professions. Based on a cultural-historical activity theory analysis, we discuss how a group career counseling program designed in Quebec (Canada), and having emancipatory aims, can support the development of young people’s empowerment and their critical consciousness regarding their career choices and aspirations. The results uphold that the students gradually appropriate the linguistic instruments that are transmitted in the group, particularly those regarding gender stereotypes. The students become progressively conscious of the stereotypical gender-related representations that influence their professional choices and, more broadly, their gender social relationships. The groups are also a space for speaking up. As such, especially for certain young women who are not used to this, the groups allow students to assert themselves, to participate in debates and to dare to formulate their opinions on issues that concern them, both within their group and more broadly in their community. In conjunction with democratic participation, the participation in these groups give voice to students on issues related to gender inequalities and more broadly to inequalities in their school context or in their communities. Accordingly, group career counseling and guidance counselors can play an important role in supporting the development of students’ competence to speak out on issues of inequality and social justice that affect them.
Value Affordance Perceptions, Personal Work Values, and Interests in Gender-typed Occupations
Bora Lee & Joonyoung Yang & Sooin Jee & Eunjin Kim & Junghwa LeeB1.09 Turiec
Although the gender gap in career choice seems to be closing, we still observe gender segregation in the workforce. Women have a stronger preference in “people” jobs while more men are represented in “things” jobs (Su, Rounds, & Armstrong, 2009). South Korea is no exception. For example, 96.7% of nurses and dental hygienists are women, while only 1.3% of driver jobs are taken by women (Korea Statistics, 2013). Scholars around the world have tackled with this question for decades and various factors, such as biological, social, cognitive, and cultural factors, seem to be in play. In the current study, we focus on values as one factor that might explain individuals’ career choice. We had three goals. First, we tried to examine individuals’ perception about already-existing occupations. We asked individuals to rate on how much of a value can be afforded within a given occupation. Second, we ask individuals what values that they endorse most. We tested if there are any gender differences shown in value endorsement. Third, we tested if personal values explain any variance in showing interest in gender-typed occupations. Results revealed that individuals perceived masculine occupations to afford more money, power, and altruism, while they perceived feminine occupations to afford more family value. Girls/women were more likely than boys/men to endorse all four values. We also found that boys were less likely to show interest in female-typed occupations, and those who endorsed more altruism values showed more interest in female-typed occupations. Adults were less likely than children to express interest in feminine occupations.
Work-family importance and job search behavior among career-interrupted men and women
Bora LeeB1.09 Turiec
In South Korea, women are in a vulnerable situation where their career trajectories are likely to be interrupted by family responsibilities, such as childcare. These women are often called „career-disrupted women“ or „career-interrupted women“ and much research is ongoing regarding this population. Prior research had focused on understanding these women, and therefore a majority of the studies took samples of only women. The current study, however, included men in the study to compare them to women and find out what actually is unique about these career-interrupted women. Accordingly, in the present study, a sample of both women and men were taken to examine differences between them. Another focus of this study was taking into account individuals’ work and family importance. Work and family importance are the degree to which one rates each domain to be important to them. These importances can function differently for men and women. In a society with strong gender norms, holding a strong family/work value may mean something different for men and women. Thus, in the present study, how this work-family importance interacts with gender in predicting their job search behavior was tested. In sum, the present study examined how work and family importance were associated with job search behavior and whether there were any gender differences in those associations. A sample of 284 Korean adults whose career trajectories have been interrupted was used in the present study. Job search behavior and antecedent variables including work and family importance were measured. Using regression analyses, findings suggested that there are gender differences in job search behavior where men were more active in job search behavior than women. Work and family importance also played significant roles, but in different ways for men and women, suggesting that differential societal norms may be at play.
Oral session 1.5 - Social justice
Everywhere I see bliss, from which alone I am irrevocably excluded.
Jean-Jacques Ruppert & Andreas Frey & Berndt-Joachim ErteltB1.10 Záhorie
The 2008 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has been a milestone against the discrimination of people on the basis of disability. Nevertheless, the challenges facing the implementation of more “inclusive” policies are substantial. Furthermore, connecting the notion of “inclusiveness” and/or “inclusion” to guidance and career counselling is quite challenging. There is also some confusion between integration and inclusion even if both terms are regularly used as synonyms. The most important difference is however that an inclusive approach implies that a given system adapts to an individual and his needs whereas an integrative approach signifies an adjustment of that individual to a given system. Nevertheless, many fundamental issues referring to an “inclusive” society with its promise of social justice remain unclear. If the “inclusion” debate is well established within education, the topic is however mostly approached in a generalist unspecific manner in other domains including guidance and career counselling. Furthermore, putting too big an emphasis on inclusion risks raising unrealistic expectations that are not or only partially achievable in the societies we live in. In our paper we aim to discuss these issues as well as present the results of a survey investigating concerns such as the basic attitudes of guidance and career counsellors to inclusion, their assessment of resources at their disposal, their training for inclusion, …
Individualised career education as a means to equal opportunity - a research approach
Svenja Ohlemann & Katja Driesel-Lange & Ulrike Weyland & Angela IttelB1.10 Záhorie
Studies show that in Germany career development and later career success are strongly related to social background (Volmer & Köppe, 2019). The disadvantages in the process of career choice resulting from endogenous and exogenous factors lead to an inequality of opportunities. They can only be remedied to a limited extent throughout the career path. School-based career education providing individual support based on adolescents’ needs might counteract these systematic disadvantages early on. However, in Germany, individual needs are rarely considered in school-based career education. To adjust the vocational curriculum, those responsible for planning career education in schools need more information regarding the requirements of specific groups. But to date, there is little knowledge about the effectiveness of specific career-related interventions on career development in the context of endogenous and exogenous factors. This is partially due to the difficult comparability of interventions, even within one intervention type, e.g. internships.
We present the research design of a comprehensive study that addresses the question on how adolescents acquire career competence and which factors within career education programs are relevant to address their specific needs during this process. The model of career competence by Driesel-Lange, Hany, Kracke, and Schindler (2010) provides the theoretical basis for this study. Eleven secondary schools in three major German cities, differing in terms of school type, socio-economic environment and percentage of students with a migrant background, are participating. The three-year study follows a mixed-method design: About 4,400 adolescents take part in the longitudinal quantitative analysis of career competence development. Questionnaires and guideline-based interviews with school management and teachers provide insights on schools’ perspectives on and concepts of career education. The career-related interventions used are examined using qualitative document analyse. Triangulating the results will help to understand which interventions best support each student. Limitations, future research and practical implications are discussed.
Oral session 1.6 - Career guidance in Asian countries
Child Career Development in Developing Country Contexts
Anuradha J. BakshiC1.06 Gömör
In this presentation, I discuss how child career development differs in developing vs. developed economies. Developing economies are far more heterogeneous than developed economies and are characterized by larger inequities. The heterogeneity in quality of child development, including child career development, is prodigiously higher in developing economies than in developed economies, and includes extremes. One such extreme is child labour: developing economies have a relatively high incidence of child labour. For a regrettably high number of children in developing economies, precocious entry into (exploitative) paid work compromises and sub-optimises developmental outcomes, not just in the short-term but also across the life span, which in fact, places the next generation at risk as well. In tandem with poverty, precarity typically characterizes the parents’ work/career and is not a new phenomenon. A large number of children in developing economies may construe work primarily as a means of livelihood; more so, a struggle for survival in an unjust world. The extent to which Western theory and research can be applied is discussed as is the manner in which career theory and research can be more inclusive and become relevant to developing world contexts.
Comparison of career education for youth among Asian countries
Hyuncheol Kim & Takao MimuraC1.06 Gömör
National Youth Policy Institute in Korea(NYPI) and Asian Regional Association for Career Development(ARACD) held the biannually international conference to compare career education for youth among ten Asian countries or areas, such as Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Pakistan and Iran in 2017.
We had several findings from the presentations of these countries. Korea and Japan emphasize youth work experience and have shown their efforts to link with competencies as a result of work experience. But it is estimated that work experience is weakly linked with the curricula in both countries. Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan tend to integrate career education policies with their curricula and promote educational reforms, curriculum reforms, teaching and learning revamps, rather than emphasizing work experience like Korea and Japan. These countries do not provide youth with many work experiences compared to Korea and Japan. Even though Malaysia, Indonesia, and Iran have high secondary school enrollment rates and are also focusing on career education like Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong, they don’t seem to achieve yet sufficient results. They might be classified as types that emphasize TVET rather than career education. India and Pakistan have low secondary enrollment rates and do not seem to have reached their career education policy goals. But they continue to promote career education in the public or private sector.
We could say that a high secondary school enrollment rate should be premised on improving career education. On the other hand, in areas such as Korea, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong with high secondary enrollment rates, career education is emphasized as a means to overcome the problem of excessive academic competitiveness. It seems that excessive academic competition may hinder activating career education.
The Need of the career guidance services for young people in Mongolia
Tumennast Gelenkhuu & BAZARVAANI Khishignyam & BISHKHORLOO Boldsuren & DAGVA-OCHOR Bumdari & ONKHOOROI Batbaatar & SONOMDARJAA Munkhbat & ERTELT Bernd-Joachim & SCHARPF MichaelC1.06 Gömör
Career guidance services are relatively new in Mongolia and therefore the government has released a set of policy documents and strategies to develop career guidance system recently. As described in the UN documents, the term youth regards 15-25-year-old people. Mongolia is a country of children and youth, and by the statistics of 2018, young people are about 15.0 percent of the whole population. Main findings of our empirical research show this target group made the career decisions mainly without valid and reliable information or professional advice by career counselors.
Two-thirds of students, who participated in the survey, have limited information or nothing about the career choice. Almost half of the students do not know about career counsellors, and twenty percent of them do not have such services at their schools. The students, who participated in the survey, responded that it is very important to have career information and to meet with a career counsellor. The main issues with regard to career choice of students are that first, one-third of them worry about couldn't find jobs in the labor market, or low wages, 25 percent are worried unstable employment and 20 percent have limited information about job opportunities. The key criterions of their career choice are job image, reputation (20 percent), personal development opportunities (20 percent), wages and job guarantee (13 percent), job availability (11 percent) in the labor market. Approximately two-thirds of university students were planned future professions, but 40 percent of them are dissatisfied with their current profession. Therefore, after graduating from university, there will want to study and work abroad.
Based on results of our research, we outline challenges for further development of career guidance services, especially demand oriented information management and counseling methods, as well as counselor training and organizational development.
Career Development for Reconciliation and Social Change
Kris Magnusson & Roberta Neault & Sareena HopkinsC1.07 Horehronie
Canada has a troubled and shameful educational history in its treatment of Indigenous peoples. Aboriginal children were removed from their families and communities and sent to Residential Schools, starting in the 1800’s and continuing until the last school was closed in 1996. The personal and social impacts of residential schools led to Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, and the issuing of 94 calls to action. Although the system of residential school education was responsible for the devastating impacts on Indigenous societies, the Commission recognized the power of education to bring reconciliation and create a more inclusive society. As Indigenous scholars point out, the goal is not simply reconciliation, but resurgence for all First Nations, Metis and Inuit people in Canada.
In this session, we provide three examples of how career development is contributing to reconciliation and resurgence in Canada. We will first provide participants with an historical overview of the Residential School System and its impact on Indigenous peoples. We will then provide 3 very different examples of how career development can be an instrument to prevent social marginalization, how services may be delivered, and how individuals and communities can be empowered. Dr. Roberta Neault will discuss equipping career development practitioners to provide contextualized and culturally relevant supports. Sareena Hopkins will then describe two career development programs that have been used with Indigenous Canadians and other marginalized groups to bring hope, purpose and pride. Dr. Kris Magnusson will then present an example of career development as a subversive activity, where principles of career development were applied to a reconciliation process at one university in Canada.
Career guidance as a way to reduce early school leaving at secondary schools
Dorota MadziováC1.08 Šariš
In the workshop we will discuss the topic of How to work with children / young people at risk of early school dropouts and we will explore the role of career guidance in this field. Concrete activities of the work with vocational school students in the context of their motivation for study will be presented. The aim of the workshop is to show the connection between the competence management skills, motivation and learning.
Sustainable Employability and continuous career development; experiencing the value of Core Qualities
Gert van Brussel & Judith SemeijnC1.09 Zemplén
Sustainable employability of workers is an important issue for todays’ labour market. From research it is known that sustainable employability is affected by different factors, amongst others the personal characteristics of people. The development and stimulation of sustainable employability and labour participation can be supported by insights in and the awareness of the personality of individuals. After an introduction in the latest insights from research, this workshop will therefore offer exercises to get acquainted with the so-called Core Qualities as a method to work with personal characteristics that may be of importance for your behaviour and sustainable employability. We will experience and test the value of these personal characteristics that can be applied by every attendee. In addition, we will evaluate the practical value of the Core Qualities and its related concepts of Pitfalls, Challenges and Allergies for career counselling and guidance.