Parallel sessions 3
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Thursday 12 Sep 2019
Conference symposium 3 - Social-emotional learning
Oral session 3.1 - Reflective practice
Career theories and models in practice: Best practice principles
Mary McMahon & Nancy Arthur & Roberta NeaultB1.06 Kysuce
The field of career guidance is replete with theories and models that take multiple perspectives on career development and people’s work lives. Ideally, career theory should provide a foundation for practice. To a large extent, however, throughout the history of career guidance, theory and practice have travelled on parallel tracks. The esoteric nature of some theories makes them seem remote from practice producing a theory-practice divide. In an effort to address this divide, the presenters published an edited collection featuring more than forty chapters written by authors from four continents and nine countries that specifically focused on the application of career theory and models to practice. To this end, each chapter concluded with a set of practice points specifically intended to bridge the theory-practice divide. Although some practice points were theory or model specific, others were more generic in nature and were evident in several chapters. In total, 295 practice points were presented across the chapters. In order to provide a succinct resource for practitioners, the presenters distilled a set of key practice concepts by conducting a thematic analysis of the practice points.
This presentation reports on a project to bridge the theory-practice divide. It first considers contributing factors to the theory-practice divide and outlines the background to the project. The process of data analysis is described and the results, in the form of a set of key practice concepts across the domains of practitioner competencies and practice considerations, are presented. Practitioners are encouraged to reflect on their own practice from the perspective of the key practice concepts.
Client-centred careers practice: firm foundation or shifting sand?
Barbara BassotB1.06 Kysuce
The purpose of this presentation is to question and critique the concept of client-centredness, often taken for granted in career development and guidance. Client-centredness has been at the heart of ethical careers practice for many years, to the point where it has become accepted as a given by many professional practitioners. On the surface, questioning it seems unwise and even unthinkable, but at a deeper level it is important to consider its flaws and the limitations it can sometimes place on professional practice. The presentation will be illustrated with an example of work with a client to show some of the complexities involved. It will conclude with an emerging theoretical model which seeks to offer an explanation of the need for understanding the culture of the client, the factors at play in their lives as they experience significant transitions and make important career decisions, all within the context of the opportunities presented by the labour market.
Revisiting Parsons: Relevancy and Reflections
Anuradha J. BakshiB1.06 Kysuce
The vocational guidance movement and the broader field of counselling in USA have emerged out of Frank Parsons’s vision (Hartung & Blustein, 2002; Herr, 2001). In this presentation, I first revisit Parsons’s pioneering work outlined in his book, Choosing a Vocation (1909). In the sections that follow, I compare and contrast his work with (a) development of career theories in developed economies, (b) development of career theories in developing world contexts, (c) the Developmental Economics and human rights perspective embodied in the United Nations dialogue and literature, and (d) current contexts, that is, the age of precariat.
Oral session 3.2 - Training of counsellors
Agency in competency-based study counselor education in two Finnish universities of applied sciences
Tiina Laajala & Pirjo-Liisa Lehtelä & Outi Rantaanen & Ari JusillaB1.07 Liptov
Competency-based model of learning in vocational education was implemented throughout Finland in 2017–2018 to strengthen the relationship between education and the fast-changing world of work and to meet the needs of the current society better. In competency-based education individual study paths make possible for the students to recognize the skills previously acquired and outline what kind of skills need to be developed.
The emphasis of agency has increased in career counselling theories of postmodern society. The present interpretation of career emphasizes life design. The current concept of agency is linkable to the central goals of competency-based education which are: supporting and strengthening students’ role as autonomous learners and offering them opportunities to plan personal study paths.
In this qualitative study we investigated how counselor students (N=50) presume competency-based study counselor education supports their agency in their career development process. The students reflected their autonomy, their development in study counselor’s competencies and their construction of study counselor’s identity in competency-based education. From the material emerged that the students are different in terms of agency and the ability to take full responsibility of their study path. Our study reveals that different forms of agency are present in the context of competency-based study counselor education. It is important that educators in competency-based education support the students’ agency in their career and life-design processes.
Education and Training in Career Guidance at FHNW Switzerland: A strictly competence-oriented framework for psychologists/non-psychologists
Anna RadvilaB1.07 Liptov
In Switzerland, career guidance is regulated by federal law: the State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI), in cooperation with the Swiss Conference of Managers of Career Guidance Centers (KBSB), developed a skills profile which everyone must fulfill to achieve a diploma in career counseling. Since 2012, the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW University) has offered multi-disciplinary training for career counseling following the method of an apprenticeship, which consists of both a theoretical and a practical component. With regard to the former, lecturers from different departments of FHNW University (e.g., economics, applied psychology, social work, pedagogy), economic specialists and professionals from the fields of career counseling and reintegration counseling teach theoretical concepts and approaches and offer the possibility to practice in small groups. Simultaneously, the practical component takes place at a career guidance center where students are supervised and assessed by experienced, qualified career counselors. The skills for career counseling, as defined in the SERI skills profile, are assessed at FHNW University and at the career guidance center where the student is doing their apprenticeship. The university not only admits students with a university degree (in psychology or other), but also those with a higher vocational education and several years of professional experience in various fields. Our initial experiences with this MAS program show that career guidance centers benefit from their cooperation with FHNW University as a possibility to train new employees near to the needs of the workplace and actively participate in advancing the profession of career counseling.
The goal of the oral paper is to show the competence frame developed and used in Switzerland, and to present our MAS programme as an example to train and educate students with multi-disciplinary backgrounds in an inter-disciplinary setting at FHNW University in cooperation with career guidance centers.
Towards inclusive education – Developing transdisciplinary guidance between special needs educators and study counsellors in secondary education in Finland’s teacher training
Simo Uusinoka & Lilja Taru & Jaako HelanderB1.07 Liptov
In this rapidly changing world education is still the key factor to avoid adolescents and young adults drifting outside education, employment or training (the NEETs). Transdisciplinary counseling and recognizing students with special needs are essential factors in every school setting. Project Right to learn – Skills to teach (funded by Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture) aims to develop upper secondary education teacher's training in the framework of guiding, counseling and supporting students with special needs. The project is related to the reform of general upper secondary education in Finland that aims to emphasize the importance of transdisciplinary guidance and special support.
In our study we present a model for development work of the project that takes place in teacher training in Finland. The research work includes a survey aimed to special needs teachers and guidance counsellors to determine the focus points of their work and how these professionals see their work in the future. We will also use target group interviews for broadening our knowledge of themes mentioned above. Information we collect will form a solid basis for developing teacher training in Finland to meet the challenges of the education in the future. We would like to see all this as a forming a new operational culture in general upper secondary education in Finland. Preliminary results will be obtained in the autumn 2019.
Oral session 3.3 - Counselling for migrants
Disrupted life-story: Career construction with adult third culture kids
Gudbjörg VilhjálmsdóttirB1.08 Orava
Migration calls for major life changes, both personally and socially (Cohen-Scali et al., 2018). In the case of adult third culture kids this reality may be hidden since they are expected to be integrated in the old country, even though they might never have lived there and do not have the same cultural knowledge as their parents (Pollock & Van Reken, 2001). When third culture kids return to their homeland as adults many things have changed and they might not speak their native language properly. Career construction theory (Savickas, 2011) is used here to help adult third culture kids create new career paths in their native land. Case study results from two interventions using the CCI are reported and analysed with a literary method called semiotic analysis (Vilhjálmsdóttir & Tulinius, 2009). This method of analysis looks for the basic structure of narrative. The two career interventions are evaluated with an Icelandic version of the Career Adapt Ability Scale (CAAS-I). The two participants are women aged between 30 and 50. The findings show that the CCI captures well the women’s life stories and career identity, although the two women differ in being creative in their situation. The CCI interventions are successful in assisting the women in goal settings and developing career identity. Only one woman shows real progress on the CAAS-I, something that reflects her creative and positive outlook on her situation as an adult third culture kid. The two case studies show that the CCI is an effective counselling method in exploring strengths and weaknesses in the participants’ careers. The literary analysis extracts life themes and allows reflexion on concerns and emerging opportunities and the CCI process enhances the sense of personal dignity and agency by its emphasis on individual strengths.
Migration: Theory, research and practice in guidance and counselling
Deirdre Hughes & Gideon ArulmaniB1.08 Orava
Today all over the world many people make one of the most challenging decisions in their lives: to leave their homes and townships in search of a safer or better life. Migration is a term that encompasses a wide variety of movements and situations that involve people of all walks of life and backgrounds. More than ever before, migration touches many countries and people in an era of deepening globalisation. There is a growing need for analytical tools and approaches that allow us to deal with the complex, contradictory, and contested nature of migration. We will share key findings from the British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, International Symposium Series on migration and consider the implications for career development policies, research and practice.
The terms “refugee”, “asylum-seeker” and “migrant” are often used to describe people who are on the move, who have left their countries and have crossed borders. The terms “migrant” and “refugee” are often used interchangeably but it is important to distinguish between them as there is a legal difference. There are negative perceptions of migrants in many societies. This is often framed in popular notions of "us" and "them”, presenting economic challenges, or perhaps being seen as raising security concerns or creating ambivalence in cultural and political spheres, all of which have affected how migrants are perceived by host societies. 9 academic peer reviewed articles and a book review provide insight to key themes and research underpinning guidance and counselling approaches. The growing rhetoric of building a wall, creating a new border force, establishing a camp, stopping the boats or restricting access has political, social and humanitarian consequences. We outline six key recommendations for policymakers, practitioners, academics and other interested parties. Finally, we call for more dynamic and cross-disciplinary research investigating this global phenomenon.
Oral session 3.4 - Towards social inclusion
Career guidance for emancipation of adults without a first diploma
Rachel Bélisle & Amélia SimardB1.09 Turiec
The possession of a high school diploma is a well-known indicator of income, quality of work life, social support, mental and physical health. The Quebec state, with its lifelong learning policy (Gouvernement du Québec, 2002), has adopted diverse measures in support of the acquisition of a first diploma by adults (18 to 64). More than 10 % of adults in Quebec do not have a secondary diploma. In continuity of that policy, we have documented the specific needs for lifelong guidance services of adults without a diploma. Even if they receive services, this specific population is understudied by the research communities of lifelong guidance, vocational guidance, career counselling and career development. They are present in studies about low-educated and/or low-skilled adults (e.g. special issue of the British Journal of Guidance & Counselling), adults in a situation of precarity or far from the job market (e.g. Michaud, Bélisle, Bourdon, Garon & Dionne, 2012) but rarely with specific analyses.
The goal of this mixed-method research was to document the lifelong guidance (orientation professionnelle) needs of adults without a diploma. Combining group and individual interviews (n=135) and a Quebec-wide telephone survey (n=450), this communication will focus on characteristics and lifelong guidance social representation of adults without a diploma and give a portrait of their limited access to lifelong, vocational or career guidance services (Bélisle et Bourdon, 2015, in French). We also want to open a dialogue on the contribution of research and practice in lifelong guidance to social justice and the emancipation of adults without a first diploma or low skilled adults (CEDEFOP, 2016).
Counselling and initiate education in the education of adult Roma from marginalized communities
Marek Lukáč & Silvia Lukáčová & Ivana PirohováB1.09 Turiec
The aim of the paper is to emphasize the need to change the way counselling is delivered in further education of adult Roma from marginalized communities. Educational activities with adult members from Roma marginalized communities (especially segregated) are often full of mutual misinterpretation and misunderstandings. We are based on the analysis of theoretical background of multicultural approach of B. Fay (2012), Wlodkovski studies on the differences in the motivation and learning of adults (2008, 2009), critical theories in education (Freire, 2000; Mezirow, 1981), Bernstein’s language code theory and from the practical experience from education and counseling with this target group. We argue that the differences of cultural capital and language code of councelors / educators and their clients, the setting of educational and counselling procedure and techniques according to the concepts of middle class aimed on clients/learners coming from underclass, are incomprehensible and thus ineffective. The development of counselling competences of an adult educator can help both - him and the learners / clients in articulating and meeting educational goals as well as their own needs. In education and counselling with marginalized Roma, the educators expertise is not enough. The perspective embodied in educator/councellor praxis of middle-class education needs to be changed. In the end, we add some practical sample of situations where counseling and learning methods have been shown to be ineffective along with the ways the counselors / educators tried to overcome it.
Protective and Risk Factors in Career Development
Iva Šverko & Toni BabarovicB1.09 Turiec
Traditional career theories emphasized the importance of congruence (Holland, 1959) and career maturity (Super, 1953) for achieving good career outcomes. However, empirical studies obtained low to moderate correlations between congruence and career maturity and career outcomes, like work satisfaction, work performance, or work engagement. Career outcomes depend on numerous additional factors, which are in part recognized in the literature but still not systematically categorized. Thus, we decided to integrate qualitative empirical findings with insights from literature to develop a conceptual model of protective and risk factors that can influence the course of career development. For empirical findings, we relied on the experience of adolescents personally involved in career development and on the experience of career development experts. We conducted focus groups in which we have discussed factors that can facilitate or inhibit free and autonomous career choice and development. The participants in focus groups were elementary school students, high school students, university students, school psychologists, career counsellors, and human resource psychologists. Based on these qualitative results, evidence from literature and our personal professional experience in this area, we proposed a taxonomy of protective and risk factors in career development which we present in this paper.
Oral session 3.5 - Youth in focus
Resilience and Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy among Greek Neets. Implications for career counseling
Argyro K. Charokopaki & Andronikos Chr. KalirisB1.10 Záhorie
The study explored the role of resilience as a predictor of career decision making self-efficacy of Greek Neets (young people not in employment, education or training). Using a sample of 92 Greek Neets, results indicated that resilience accounted for 40% of the variance in career decision making self-efficacy. The findings indicated the importance of resilience on career decision process and on career development in general and are discussed with reference to Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) framework. Implications for research and Neets’ career counseling are also discussed.
Strengthened career guidance provision in the framework of employment services? Insights from a national programme Reštart
Ivana Studená & Zuzana KožárováB1.10 Záhorie
In this contribution we are referring to research undertaken within H2020 ENLIVEN project exploring the nature of the barriers to participation in lifelong learning. We draw on key informant experiences of young NEETs in Slovakia participating in national programme Reštart which was set to provide individualised career guidance services to NEETs bellow 29 years. Programme Reštart has been specifically designed responding to experience with inability of young NEETs to identify and follow plausible training and career development options that would lead to improved lifelong employability. While participation in the programme has been mandatory and as such was at first perceived with reservations, all interviewed participants assessed the career guidance provision positively. The policy trail methodological approach combining qualitative interviews and contextual policy mapping proved particularly important source of information for more holistic view and assessment of career guidance programmes. Similar research insights are crucial source of information for a way forward for improved and long term public policy support to individualised lifelong career guidance as an integral part of national policies. Multiple benefits have been reported by the participants in this programme providing strengthened career guidance element via public employment services.
The influence of social class stereotype on school guidance among middle school’s pupils
Gautier Degrugillier & Caroline Desombre & Célénie Brasselet & Mickaël JuryB1.10 Záhorie
Research has shown that students ' socioeconomic status (SES) plays a role in terms of both, achievement and experiences. However, few studies have investigated how SES influences students' pathway within the vocational system. Our study aims to replicate Channouf, Mangard, Baudry & Perney (2005) by showing that students' SES plays a role into teachers and counselors' school guidance between academic and vocational curriculum. We also sought go one step further by showing that a similar influence may exist into vocational curriculum, between two programs which differ from their selectivity. Seven hundred and ten participants had completed an online survey in which fictitious school records described either a low or high-SES tenth-grader pupil. Our result shown that high-SES pupil was more oriented toward the selective program of vocational curriculum than the low-SES pupil. This study highlight that differentiated recommendations may exist into the vocational curriculum, based on pupils’ SES and contribute to maintain the SES hierarchy.
Oral session 3.6 - Family in career guidance
Adolescents in one-parent families: A previously unnoticed group in inclusive career education?
Jerusha Klein & Svenja Ohlemann & Katja Driesel-LangeC1.06 Gömör
Choosing a vocation is an important developmental task. To foster this task in senses of creating an individually successful career, adolescents need support to manage this process. Career development is strongly influenced by socio-economic factors, among others, children from families with lower income are at a disadvantage (Eshelman & Rottinghaus, 2015).
In Germany, one-parent families are at a higher risk of social decline into precarious circumstances, which in turn results in poorer educational opportunities for their children (Bartels & Stockhausen, 2017). Studies have also shown that career development is positively related to support from parents and teachers (Mayhack & Kracke, 2010; Schindler, 2012). We therefore investigate a) whether adolescents in one-parent families differently perceive parental support and b) whether they demonstrate a lower development level in terms of career competence.
The study is based on the theoretical model of career competence by Driesel-Lange, Hany, Kracke, and Schindler (2010). The 3,187 students in this sample were 16.38 years old on average (SD = 1.64) and enrolled in one of eleven German secondary schools. The data came from the second time point in a five-wave longitudinal study.
Conducting an analysis of variance with family composition as independent variable and perceived parental support as dependent variable, we found lower mean levels of perceived parental support for adolescents in one-parent families in comparison to those living with both their parents. Hierarchical linear regressions, furthermore, showed that adolescents living in one-parent families had in average a lower development regarding four of twelve career competence facets, namely: occupational knowledge, career curiosity, exploration and self-regulation. Also, higher teacher support predicted a higher mean level of these facets. Effects of family composition in this analysis were like those of the family’s socio-economic status. Limitations, future research and practical implications are discussed.
Family conference - method of preventing early school leaving (ESL)
Markéta FišarováC1.06 Gömör
The Family Conference (FC) method in some states is referred to as Family Group Conference, Familien Auffstellung, etc. It is a simple tool that even a layman can use in his work. It is based only on one fundamental idea: "Family is an expert in his life". FC tries to activate and utilize primarily family resources; however, in areas where the family does not have the capacity, knowledge or resources that involve secondary professionals who continue to work with the family are employed. The main reason for preparing and carrying out FC is in response to a change in the family situation, which can have negative consequences, such as school failure, absence of attendance, change of behaviour or various problems for the child.
My oral presentation will offer a set of situations in which the family and a particular young person can be supported in their choice of study or profession. The FC coordinator ensures that the wider family network has full awareness of the process and that the family agrees on a procedure for the collaboration of professionals with family members for the next half-year. The professionals’ expertise is sought after when the family itself cannot help with a particular issue. The advantage is the possibility of creating a "safety net", setting the foundation for cooperation even if a member of the family or the young person himself/herself will fail.
Throughout the course of preparation of the FC and during the meeting, the family has time to discuss the joint plan in their mother tongue and communicate with experts through a selected family member or interpreter.
This method of working with the family also produces good results when working with migrants, national minorities and socially excluded people.
Context Counts in Career Development
William BorgenC1.07 Horehronie
Engagement in work related activities is a major life involvement for many people across societies. The major aim of career development activities often is to help people sort out their skills and abilities and values and help them consider the types of employment that may reflect their interests and passions. However, what happens when jobs related to the person's sense of vocation are not available, or they lose a job which, even if it doesn't exactly match their interests, financially supports them and their families.
In many countries internationalization and rapid technological, social and economic change have led to erratic and unpredictable changes in labor market opportunities. For increasing numbers of individuals this means that seeking assistance in managing career/employment transitions has become necessary across their adolescence and adulthood. The rapidly evolving nature of the labor market in many areas of the world can cause these transitions can be protracted and personally challenging, which can precipitate a range of challenging psychological reactions that can hinder the person from being resilient in effectively engaging in activities that can lead to future employment.
The workshop will have five major aims:
• provide an overview of the influence of rapidly changing labor market contexts that can challenge the assumptions and processes underlying career development services;
• review personal career transition experiences and those of unemployed people and workers affected by change affecting their, work based on studies that have been conducted over number of years;
• discuss the role of those involved in the development and delivery of career development services within this context of change;
• describe and discuss a counselling focused needs assessment process that has proven to be very effective in charting a course for further career development activities;
• consider the aims, processes and outcomes of career development services in the current context.
Mentoring programme - an important tool for the professional development of career guidance practitioners during the process of quality certification
Müllerová Alice & Csirke Andrea & Karen SchoberC1.08 Šariš
In the workshop, development of the mentoring programme supporting career practitioners certification will be presented, together with specific examples of designed tools and activities. A goal of the mentoring programme is to support career guidance practitioners to gain career guidance quality certification.
The process of mentoring development started with data collection followed by the design of a preliminary version of the programme that underwent two phases of testing. The final version of the mentoring programme contains teaching guidelines together with worksheets for participants and guidelines for mentors.
Participants in the workshop will have the opportunity to learn about the process of mentoring development, compare feedback from Czech, German, and Slovak practitioners and also examine some of the activities prepared for participants.
The mentoring programme itself was designed within the ERASMUS+ project Improving the implementation of quality assurance in career guidance (QUAL-IM-G).
Guidance in communities of students in upper secondary school - changing the guidance practice
Cecilie Nesborg & Kristina Bæk OldrupC1.09 Zemplén
The workshop “Guidance in communities of students in upper secondary school to distinguish and choose study, career and other transitions in a democratic context - changing the guidance practice” will present the counseling performed in groups by Study- and Career Guidance Denmark. Furthermore, it will give examples on how to generalize the students’ questions, doubts, hopes and dreams encouraging students to engage, reflect and have dialogues in a counselor-facilitated community.
Based on one of our many guidance activities for groups, we will argue why the guidance in communities should be student-engaging, and discuss how we, as counselors, balance on a knife edge to ensure that the choice of education and career will be of the greatest possible benefit to the individual and to society as a whole. We will make concrete suggestions for exercises and methods which, in our view, initiate student thinking and reflections on their individual wishes and opportunities in terms of education, jobs and other transitions in life, in order to introduce them to new perspectives and ease and generalize their doubts and choices.
In addition, the workshop offers perspectives on and discusses how the counselor role has changed in Study- and Career Guidance Denmark in order to increase the focus on creating student-engaging guidance activities. Finally, the workshop invites participants to reflect their own practice in regard of Study- and Career Guidance Denmark's.
Career components in basic education
Štefánia HrivňákováC1.10 Zips
Traditional professional distinction between teachers (addressing the curriculum) and career guidance professionals (addressing the career choices) does not lead to expected results due to the shortcomings of counseling service. The teachers, besides their educational roles, should also assume the role of career guides. Practical example is demonstrated on the subject matter lesson of career development support in the instruction. Five points structure of the lesson or the blocks of lessons is demonstrated with the career development components that are integrated into subject matter. The students need to have support for their career development in the basic schools and they need to develop the career management competencies. This is long run process for each student, not only episodic career guidance service due to scarcity of the service. The career development management needs to start in the classroom environment, and the teachers need to take partially career guidance in the instruction.
The World of Work – Counselor Training and Activity for Students
Pavla Frňková & Dana SklenářováC1.10 Zips
We are presenting a practical activity for two target groups – educators/school counsellors and students. The goal of the activity is to develop professional competences of school counsellors /educators in group career guidance. The goal regarding students is to increase students´ understanding of jobs descriptions, matching between students´ own skills and skills needed for different professions and reflections on vocations across their own families. The activity consists of set of methods for both target groups.
The practitioners can apply the whole set of methods or they can choose one or two of them applicable in their own practice both with groups and individuals.