Parallel sessions 6
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Friday 13 Sep 2019
Conference symposium 6 - Early career adult education
Early career adult education trainers and their learning and career pathways in organisations
Günter Hefler & Denisa Fedakova & Francesca Rapana & Eva Steinheimer & Ivana Studena & Gabriel Weibl & Janine WulzB1.06 Kysuce
This symposium consisting of 4 contributions draws attention to the role of an individual's learning at the workplace and the intersection of individual and organisational factors shaping the individual's learning and career pathways. H2020 ENLIVEN research project employs interdisciplinary approach to gather evidence on how early career workers access and deploy learning opportunities in 3 diverse sectors (metals, retails, adult education) across 8 EU countries. In this contribution proposed for the IAEVG conference we focus on a selection of research work undertaken in different subfields of adult education sector in 3 countries. The arguments for direct relevance of this work for adult career guidance includes: i) occupational and educational information is one of the key resources for career guidance professionals and their structuration of provision of quality career guidance models; ii) not only are adult education provision and carrier guidance closely inter-connected organisational fields, the professionals in this field are often professionally active simultaneously in both fields, career counselors providing training courses in different thematic areas and vice versa; iii) quality career guidance is often necessary pre-requisite for any adult who faces lack of motivation to learn further. For vulnerable adults facing more important difficulties and barriers to participate in lifelong learning activities, complex career guidance and support are vital. Complex information source on the conditions, drivers or barriers to learn in lifelong perspective are increasingly demanded from the lifelong learning stakeholders, policy makers and education professionals in the face of technological and societal changes the generations face and are expected to face in the near future.
Oral session 6.1 - French touch
Representations of work among low qualified young workers in different countries: a cross cultural qualitative approach
Valerie Cohen-Scali & Jonas MasdonatiPlenary room
Young people are particularly exposed to work precarity. The aim of our research was to identify and compare the representations of work among young low qualified workers in different parts of the world. The social representations approach (Moscovici, 1984) and the Psychology of Working Framework (Blustein, 2006), addressing key features of decent work, were used as theoretical frameworks. Ten young adults have been interviewed in eight countries of Europe (France, Iceland, Switzerland), America (Brazil, United-States), Western Asia (Lebanon) and Africa (Burkina Faso). The 70 interviews transcriptions have been processed according to a qualitative cross-cultural research methods analysis (Liamputtong, 2010).
Results showed similarities between these groups regarding decent work representations, work expectations, and the place of work in life. An adequate salary and good working conditions are considered as important expectations toward work, and the quality of the relationships at work is a key component of decent work across countries. Differences among cultural groups were observed regarding young adults’ experienced working conditions, which seem to reflect the Human Development Index of each county involved. Understanding the situations of young workers in different parts of the world enables to build more efficient career counseling devices taking into account socioeconomical and cultural issues.
Subjective age, ageing stereotypes, seniors´ employability
Sophie Tripon & Even LoarerPlenary room
In the context of the current demographic and organisational changes, and changes in the content of jobs, this research aims to analyse, for adult workers, the relationship between subjective age and career.
Our hypothesis is that subjective age might be a better predictor of career decisions and strategy than chronological age, especially in the second part of this career.
Our research aims to explore potential links between career construction, by different career specifications (learning, internal or external mobility, professional bifurcation, entrepreneurship, no change) and individual attitudes to age and aging, by the notion of subjective age.
A qualitative interview survey was conducted with 50 adults. It focuses on attitudes towards age, aging and career. An analysis of the main characteristics of career choices and career strategies examined the relationship between subjective age and career guidance strategy and behaviors. Several questionnaires were also used. These questionnaires focus on individual representations and adherence to stereotypes of aging in a chronological perspective (past, present and future).
The study corroborates the existence of a subjective age, different from the actual age, and an inter and intra individual variability of this subjective age.
The subjective age is contextualized and depends on several individual and contextual factors. Subjective age seems to be related to individual representations of age and aging, but also to dominant social norms.
The results also corroborate our hypothesis of more significant relationship between subjective age and career choices than with chronological age.
Understanding the professional ambition to develop it better: the example of WorldSkills competition
Catherine Valmorin & Even LoarerPlenary room
Several so-called "manual" professions suffer from a negative image. "Underjobs", Unattractive, painful, poorly paid, ghettos of underprivileged students, "default" professional choice ... However, some young people who undertake these jobs, push their search for mastery, perfection and excellence until becoming national champions or Olympic champions (“WorldSkills competition”) in their profession. The origin of their motivation is off great interest for us. They have talent, will, or luck but that does not explain their motivation to succeed. We chose to study the origin of their ambition.
Ambition, often equated with motivation, has been little studied so far and remains largely unknown. We propose here to study the psychological and social factors of professional ambition by a study conducted with members of the French team engaged in the Olympics games of professions. For this, we used an autobiographical approach, involving the analysis of life stories and cognitive mapping. First of all, this method allowed us to examine to what extent the support offered by WorldSkills constitutes both a "path of excellence in learning" and a powerful tool of professionalization for these young people. In a second step, we analyzed the psychological dimensions of their professional ambition.
Oral session 6.2 - Career and mental health
Contribution of Decent Work to the Relationship-to-Current-Work and the Mental Health of Canadian Workers
Viviers, Simon & Fournier, Geneviève & Lise Lachance & Imane Zineb Lahrizi & Liette GoyerB1.07 Liptov
Mental health problems are, according to the World Health Organization, a major issue of humanity to address in the century to come. Work can constitute a major vector for the construction of mental health. However, having a job is not enough to guarantee people's psychological health: good work conditions and organization are decisive concerning that issue. This oral paper explores the contribution of decent work to mental health amongst Quebec workers (Canada), considering also the relationship of these workers to their current job. Based on a psychosocial approach to decent work, this cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted by online questionnaire with 305 workers. Findings of SEM reveal a two-folded concept of decent work, which is predicted by socio-economic positions, and predicts in turn positive outcomes on relationship to current work and mental health. Questions raised about the differential effects on mental health of the dimensions of decent work that may or may not be related to instrumental indicators of job quality.
Should public health be a goal of career guidance policy?
Pete RobertsonB1.07 Liptov
Public health experts stress the importance of the social causation of disease. Work and education among the key determinants of health. Health detriments are associated with negative career experiences. This is illustrated by the substantial literature linking unemployment to increased incidence of mental health conditions. An emerging evidence base suggests that there may be long term ‘health scarring’ effects of youth unemployment that endure long into adulthood. It is reasonable to see career as an important category of factors influencing health outcomes.
If health has social determinants then it follows that follows that social interventions can contribute to public health. Public health interventions can been seen as offering three levels of protection, by acting to:
i. Prevent the onset of health conditions
ii. Shorten the duration and reduce the severity of health conditions, and prevent their re-occurrence,
iii. Ameliorate the severity of illness experiences and reduce their impact on functioning.
Poor health leads to economic costs for governments due to increased demand for health and social care. In the working age population, economic impacts are amplified by absenteeism, reduced tax revenues and increased welfare benefit costs for those unable to work. Interventions that improve these outcomes have both health and economic value.
At a national level, career guidance can be conceptualised as a public health intervention. Recommendations will be made as to the implication of this for practitioners, for services, and for working with policymakers.
Taking Agentic Action at the Intersection of Career and Mental Health Domains
Mary Sue RichardsonB1.07 Liptov
This paper proposes that the notion of taking agentic action provides a crucial intersection between career and mental health domains. Agentic actions are actions that one wants to take, on some level; taking agentic actions is the ability to take such actions, to be intentional and self-directed in one's life. This paper is informed by a holistic, contextual model of human development, counseling for work and relationship, that stipulates three major social contexts of development, (a) market or paid work, (b) care work in personal lives (unpaid), and (c) relationships, through which most people co-construct their lives. Taking agentic actions, especially in market work contexts, is central to contemporary career theory and practice. It is also important in psychotherapy, the signature intervention practice in mental health where the ability to take agentic action is widely considered an outcome of successful psychotherapy. A focus on taking agentic action opens up significant areas of collaboration between these two domains. For example, mental health issues may negatively impact the ability to take agentic action in the social context of market work. Conversely, constraints in the social context of market work may negatively affect mental health and adversely impact the ability to take agentic action across life contexts. Furthermore, such collaboration may help to heal the split between the personal and the social realms of human experience that has been reified in these two domains of theory and practice. Finally, the issue of inclusivity is central when discussing agentic action because the structure of opportunities significantly impacts the experience and expression of agentic actions, especially in relation to market work contexts. Narrative methods relevant to both career and psychotherapy practices may help to address the narrowing of lives due to constraints on agentic action in market work contexts.
Oral session 6.3 - International student mobility
Career Mobility of non-European Graduates from European HEIs
Erik ZeltnerB1.08 Orava
For international graduates from European higher education institutions (HEIs), their rising numbers and the attempts to utilize their international experience in a globalized labor market result in an increasingly challenging transition period. This development is accompanied by the students’ intention of staying in the respective host country after graduation, which is consistently above 60% in several European countries, and there is a discrepancy between this intention to stay and the actual stay rates of European host countries. Moreover, data suggest that recent non-European graduates are more likely to be unemployed than their European colleagues or must contend with longer periods of unemployment. Furthermore, international experience is not necessarily a key factor in recruitment. Regardless of whether graduates can stay, return home or establish a career elsewhere, the transition process is often accompanied by the challenges of (re)entry and (re)acculturation.
Based on several case studies of international students and their transitional experience of non-European graduates from study to work, I provide an integrated analysis of transcripts of semi-structured interviews conducted with non-European graduates from German and UK HEIs. Based on multiple case study research, which I carried out in cooperation with a German and a UK HEI and ten of their non-European fulltime master’s graduates, I particularly analyze and contrast their educational, professional and cultural transition experience and the entrance of host societies considering their expectations and motives for studying abroad, including their aspirations for migration, and the correspondence with experienced reality. Subsequently, conclusions are drawn regarding career development and management for prospective and current non-European students, including individual and institutional aspects of transition, such as policy and promotion of employment for foreign graduates in Germany and the UK, as well as implications and directions for further potential research activities will be discussed with the audience.
Cross-border career counselling for students: A case of Euroregion Nisa
Kateřina MaršíkováB1.08 Orava
The paper introduces topical issue of the cross-border counselling in the Czech and German part of the Euroregion Nisa. The paper presents key findings of the Gemini project and the study findings of the qualitative and quantitative survey data collected in this project between 2016 and 2019. Possibilities at the labour market in Euroregions open the question if and how students of secondary schools get an information support to find a job in the neighbour country. The survey found out that students of secondary schools in the Liberec region are willing to find a job abroad but the institutional support (state structure, frame and also school level) are not sufficient. Most of the schools do not have a specialist and students get information mainly from parents or the Internet. The analysis during the Gemini project identified gaps in the legislation frame, labour market differences, importance of setting of eurocompetencies and also the need for brining tools for professionals to support students in their preparation for future career in Czech and German part of the Nisa Euroregion. For the support of a development and an improvement of these factors it is important to carry out initiatives of professionals, secondary schools, projects and specialised publications in the cross border context. This issues have been discussed in the paper.
Exploring factors influencing career outcomes of international STEM master’s students of English-taught programs in Japan
Yuko RyanB1.08 Orava
Japan, in 2016, was ranked among the top four host countries of inflows of international tertiary-educated students among OECD countries, and it occupied the top position in the non-Anglophone country category. Alongside the “300,000 International Students Plan” announced in 2008, Japan introduced a direct policy pathway for study-related migration. Although Japan has become a key nation for international student mobility/migration (ISM), ISM research pertaining to Japan is scarce. By exploring the issue from the angle of facilitation of international university students’ education-to-work transition, this case study attempts to identify the key factors that helped or hindered career decision-making and job search of international STEM master’s students of English-taught programs in Japan. Drawing on primary data from the surveys conducted in a particular university, aspects that are considered to have some influence on international students’ decisions pertaining to their career path and their career outcome are explored. The findings are relevant to international students, career supporters, universities as well as policymakers, since Japan needs to form posts for the “300,000 International Students Plan” as this was the target set for 2020.
Oral session 6.4 - Career education
Career Education for Teachers toward an Inclusive Society: Focusing on the Issues of Sexual Diversity
Tomoe Kawasaki & Masahito YoshimuraB1.09 Turiec
Inclusive education has been referred to mostly as a synonym of special needs education in the Japanese context, although it has often been defined internationally as a wider concept (UNESCO, 2005, 2009). Special needs education for minorities with mental, physical or sensory impairment is now an essential topic or area in every teacher education/training program in Japan, but other factors for inclusion have not been dealt with. There is rather large minority groups, however, that has been invisible in the Japanese cultural context but gradually disclosed: gender and sexual minorities.
The purpose of this research is to investigate how we can tackle the issues of gender and sexual orientation in the teacher education program at the graduate level. We decided to utilize a career development model that we had already developed (Kawasaki, Yoshimura & Nakai, 2015, 2017), partly modifying the model and implementing classes concerning the issues. The effects of the program were evaluated through analyzing the results of a questionnaire survey for pre-service and in-service teachers in the program. We could observe significant changes in their understanding of diversity in schools and communities, deepening of their human rights awareness and their attitude concerning interrelationships with others.
Oral session 6.5
Building Learning territories through Open Badges: enable the encounter of individuals recognition and territories needs.
Eden Jean-Marie & Muriel MoujeardB1.10 Záhorie
We believe that the role of the counsellor is no longer to guide but to help the individual to perceive and widen the field of possibilities. These capacities are closely linked to the reflective practice which includes two orientations: one turned towards yourself (internal), the second one towards the environment (external).
We assume that the individual and his counsellor will have to act on two dimensions: the individual dimension – the development of skills, feeling of competence, and desire to act; the collective dimension – the resources and opportunities offered by the socio-economic environment, but also the individual’s perception and feeling of control over these opportunities.
We support the emergence of a reflective practice affecting both orientations (internal/external) and both dimensions (individual/collective), by accompanying individuals and territories with two complementary approaches: one focused on the individual dimension (DIA#LOG), the other one on the collective dimension (building Learning territories with Open Badges). While DIA#LOG responds to the internal orientation, the creation of learning territories integrating Open Badges aims to allow the external orientation of reflective practice.
Our objective is to design pathways for the identification, acquisition and recognition of transversal skills to enable people excluded from the world of work to embark on pathway of learning. These pathways are based on identified skills needs and existing resources of the territory materialized and translated into co-constructed Open Badges.
Guidance at Postgraduate level: Students and Graduates Trajectories in an Online Master's Degree in Argentina and in Spain
Silvia Batlle & Beatriz Malik Liévano & Juan Cingolani & Cristina Sansone & Emmanuel Pacheco & Carolina AlbertoB1.10 Záhorie
In recent years there has been an important transformation of the Higher Education System, both in Argentina and internationally, bringing about an expansion of distance postgraduate courses, an option increasingly sought after by students due to the greater scope of access and the possibility of more autonomous learning. The diversity of institutions has multiplied, with an increase of the number and type of postgraduate courses, and the number of students enrolled.
From a lifelong guidance perspective, we consider that entry and graduation are moments of transition which are important to study in order to develop guidance and support mechanisms for students and institutions. The theoretical approach of the study is psychosocial, in which both the subjective aspects of the students as well as the institutional and contextual ones are considered. This type of approach allows us to analyze and understand how students construct part of their personal, educational and work trajectory during the passage through this educational level.
The methodological research strategy is qualitative. In this paper we will present the comparison of the academic trajectory (degree course, motivation to choose the Postgraduate programme and modality -distance or face to face-, and socialization during the master's degree) of a sample of 5 current students and 5 graduates of a virtual master's degree in Argentina, and a similar sample in Spain (the results will be presented at the Conference).
Based on the results obtained in the present research, ideas for guidance at the Postgraduate level, in transition economies and uncertain times, can be derived.
Interest, work values and STEM fields - Secondary school students' opinion on future work
Csilla TudlikB1.10 Záhorie
Interest and work values form each other though values have a more stable base. Kozma (2005) says that students prefer university majors linked to their values, while Sőrés (2012) claims that values get stronger during university education. According to Bocsi (2014) higher education is a transition: the least pragmatic the trainings are, the most changes in values happen over working years. We have examined secondary school students' work values and interest (n=150) by using Super Work Values Inventory and Holland Interest Inventory, and then compare the results to prior higher educational researches. The result shows that the two age-group's value list is similar at the first places. However, intellectual work, work performance, and creativity is more important for higher education students, which indicates the starting point of becoming intellectuals. Furthermore, Kiss (2015) demonstrated the main values linked to STEM fields and we have found that secondary schools students do not share exactly those values. As for interest, secondary school students are mostly sociable (both girls and boys), and they like economics and arts, but show slight interest in realistic and investigative activities. On the whole, the young do not find neither in values, nor in interest the STEM fields attractive, however they have the biggest chance to live and benefit from the fourth industrial revolution. We would like to raise the attention that there is lot to do to reach the goals of EU STEM Coalition
Critical Reflection as a Tool for Social Justice in Career Guidance and Counselling
Eva Kavková & Siobhan NearyC1.06 Gömör
The workshop aims to explore critical approach towards professional practice in career guidance. Giroux (1992) or Apple (2001) have emphasised the need to explore power concepts of social and economic reality in order to uncover inequalities and social injustice that are deeply embedded within racial, gender, and class relations. Career guidance is becoming a powerful tool that can shape those realities and therefore career counsellors must question their professional practice to analyse, whether their work is reinforcing or reducing inequality (Irving, 2005).
In our workshop, we aim to introduce methods of critical reflection, which are widely used in social work, in order to ‘look outward, to the social and cultural artifacts and forms of thought which saturate our practices and inward to challenge the processes by which we make sense of the world’ (White, 2001). We will focus on transferability of those methods into the field of career guidance and introduce a concept of a ‘critical career counsellor’.
We will present key approaches in the first part of the workshop, such as anti-oppressive approach, anti-discriminatory practice, reflexivity and critical incident analysis.
Participants will get acquainted with biographical work in the second part of workshop. They will explore their own roots to uncover the way in which their life-story contains clues as to why they have chosen their vocation. They will reflect on turning points and relational and structural influences that will help them to better understand their strengths and weaknesses, identify and question their underlying values and beliefs, acknowledge and challenge possible assumptions on which they base their ideas and actions, recognize areas of potential bias or discrimination, acknowledge their fears and identify possible inadequacies or areas for improvement.
Interdisciplinary teams for career guidance as a mechanism for improvement of career guidance services
Ružica Madžarević, Ivana VulićC1.07 Horehronie
In the Republic of Serbia, educational institutions are the key places for career guidance services (CGS) since they can reach large scale of students in the transitional periods (from one educational level to another, from school to work etc.). Although some of CGS were always present in the schools, they are now an obligatory part of schools’ annual programs, planned and implemented by Teams for CGS which were established by the set of educational reforms from 2013 onwards.
According to the research conducted in Serbia in 2016, both professional associates (school psychologists and pedagogues) and teachers are recognized as key carriers of CGS in over 70% of secondary school career guidance programs (Đurović, Golović and Jevtović, 2016). Students, school principals, former students, parents’ councils as well as higher education institutions, National employment service and employers are recognized as key partners in at least half of the school programs (ibid). Inclusion of partners with such different educational and working background can support the interdisciplinary approach to CGS which can be very beneficial for the quality of these services on the other hand (Sultana, 2018).
During this workshop participants will have the opportunity to hear more about how interdisciplinary career guidance teams can be a mechanism for quality of CGS in schools based on the experience of workshop leaders with implementation of continuous professional development programs for practitioners involved in the work of these teams. The workshop will be focused on the following topics: the organization of teams’ work, key elements of quality designing and planning of teams’ activities. Participants will have opportunity to integrate workshop content within their working experience through various practical exercises while gaining the idea about implementation of this kind of interdisciplinary teams in their working context.
Publishing in an academic journal: Meet the editor(s) of the International Journal for Vocational and Educational Guidance
Jerôme RossierC1.08 Šariš
In this session we aim to demystify the editorial process of scientific journals of our field. We will first describe the overall functioning of a scientific journal (the role of the association and the role of the editor) and which type of articles that a journal such as the International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance publishes. The role of the editors, the editorial board, the advisory board, and reviewers will be detailed. We will present how manuscripts are assessed and how editorial decisions are made. We will also discuss which kinds of manuscript are usually assessed positively and are evaluated as interesting for our audience. We will present the criteria typically used by reviewers and editors to make their suggestions and make their decisions. Finally, we will address how to best format a manuscript in order to maximize its chances to be sent out for review and considered positively for publication. This presentation will be followed by an open discussion.
Supporting career paths in Universities of Applied Sciences
Maija Joensuu & Kirsi Paavola & Irmeli Lignell & Katja MunterC1.09 Zemplén
This presentation gives an overview of a project “Supporting Career Paths in Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS)” and the development work done in the project. The project focuses especially on students who need special support in their studies and in career guidance, for example due to learning difficulties or mental or physical restraints. The aim of the project is to support the inclusive and accessible study path in universities of applied sciences and from universities to the world of work.
Supporting Career Paths in UAS -project is a national development project in Finland. It is funded by European Social Fund (2014-2020) and it partly applies practically oriented action research. Practically oriented action research enables the integration of planning, acting and evaluating of processes and repeating this cycle flexibly. The project started with a survey that aimed to deepen the knowledge about the current status, needs and experiences of career guidance services for students with special needs. These results will be the basis of focusing the career guidance service development during the project.
The preliminary findings in the project support the idea that accessible and inclusive career guidance practices in universities of applied sciences should focus on
• Supporting the individual needs of the student based on his/her strengths and competences to be developed
• The personal encounters and guidance sessions with students
• Improving the connection between world of work and universities of applied sciences
• Delivering accessible self-study materials via variable channels
• Ensuring the adequate guidance for all students based on their needs
• Improving alumni connections
This presentation aims to raise discussion about the inclusive and accessible career guidance in higher education from these aspects.
The era of automation and robotization / opportunity or threat for career counselling
Zuzana ZáhradníkováC1.10 Zips
Based on the prognosis of Silicon Valley medium-skill professions and also middle-management roles will disappear in the next 25 years. Majority of Accountant and Auditors jobs will soon disappear due to the automation.
Also a number of low-skilled jobs will decrease significantly due to the robotization.
Major industries to be impacted are: Manufacturing, Technology, Cleantech, Food & Beverages, Finance, Law, Medical services etc.
In general there is a fear increasing of having no job in the future. By 2025, we’ll lose over five million jobs due to automation. Already 56% of companies globally have partially implemented automation.
How much do career guidance practitioners’ skills and career management skills need to be changed for 4.0 labour market. 65% of today’s 12-year-olds will have jobs that don’t yet exist...